Linux HugePages for Oracle

Few weeks back one DBA told me there is no need to setup HugePages as we are not using 40+GB SGA & we had it enabled from the initial days of 11g migration from 10g ( Well, here is how you can setup HugePages for your Oracle database instance.

A brief explanation that might help you to decide whether you should enable HugePages or not is quoted from Tim Hall’s article below.

“For large SGA sizes, HugePages can give substantial benefits in virtual memory management. Without HugePages, the memory of the SGA is divided into 4K pages, which have to be managed by the Linux kernel. Using HugePages, the page size is increased to 2MB (configurable to 1G if supported by the hardware), thereby reducing the total number of pages to be managed by the kernel and therefore reducing the amount of memory required to hold the page table in memory. In addition to these changes, the memory associated with HugePages can not be swapped out, which forces the SGA to stay memory resident. The savings in memory and the effort of page management make HugePages pretty much mandatory for Oracle 11g systems running on x86-64 architectures.

Recently I had a short Twitter exchange with Tim Hall about the subject & He mentioned that he always enables it.

Please refer the article from below link, it is by Tim Hall, a geek in this field and the owner of

Exercises explained in this article is applicable to 19c also (verified as working). Please make sure that your version of Oracle database supports these settings before attempting. Please do not copy this to PRODUCTION environments without enough testing.

Linux | Folder permissions for group

Let us see how we can create and give a group write permission for a folder on Linux environment. This becomes helpful when you want to keep downloaded files accessible to multiple users. Very helpful if you are dealing with Oracle EBS like applications that has different users for both database and application.

[root@erp-test /]# mkdir -p orapatches

--Change group ownership for the newly created folder.
[root@erp-test /]# chgrp -R oinstall /orapatches

--Finally change the mode so that all the members in this group could write to this folder.

[root@erp-test /]# chmod g+w /orapatches

Hope this helps few newbies out there!

Oracle VirtualBox Guest Addons | kernel headers not found for target kernel

So how many Oracle VirtualBox VM (Virtual Machine)s you do have?

I’ve many. I try many new software & not to break production box, I try them using Virtual Machines. I use Oracle VirtualBox (mostly) for both Windows and Linux machines (and VMWare ESXi for Production servers), as you could see with the above image. VirtualBox and VMWare supply additional software called “Guest Additions” that synchronize the Guest Virtual Machines with Host machine seamlessly. Like Mouse integration that allows your mouse to travel between both host and guest machines without any difficulties.

On Linux OS, installing the Guest Additions could be sometimes challenging. Especially with Oracle Linux that uses UEK kernels. Let us see how to “fix” the common error messages that appears when installing the Guest Additions on Oracle Linux 7 and 8.

The best approach is to update your Linux OS with latest patches before trying the below. I consider you already updated your Linux box, if yes then

yum install kernel-uek-devel

is enough to install the devel package, suffice the kernel headers missing error. Install the package, reboot the box and try to install VirtualBox Guest Additions. This time module should get installed properly. You may need make, gcc & perl already installed for a successful installation of Guest Additions. You will find instructions to install them later in the article.

Now we have another situation when guest add-ons are required, however updating the new Linux box is not possible due to many reasons. Here we will use the Linux OS ISO image. Please note, the ISO file that you are going to use must be the same ISO that you used to install OS and OS was not updated at all. That means your Linux box is as it is after the OS installation.

Attach the ISO file to your Linux box & Switch to

Packages folder for Oracle Linux 7 and “BaseOS\Packages” for Linux 8

Now locate the kernel-uek-devel-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx package and install it. For example, I will execute the following for Linux 8

rpm -ivh kernel-uek-devel-5.4.17-2136.300.7.el8uek.x86_64.rpm

That’s it. Restart the box and try to install the guest add-ons once again and you must be through without other issues. You might need to install gcc, make & perl also to get the guest add-ons installed.

If you are connected to internet, you can install the above packages by issuing the command

yum install gcc make perl -y

Or go through the packages available in the Packages repo, install them.

All the best!

Slow SSH connections from Windows to Linux hosts

Windows built-in firewall does not block SSH connections those are going out & there is no need to create an exception for SSH connections from Windows to LINUX hosts. Still many things could mess up connections.

One of the major culprits being the DNS settings. We had a migration for Primary domain controller from 2008 R2 to Windows Server 2016. Prior the upgrade we brought a temporary VM using VirtualBox to insure that the migration could happen seamlessly. The migration to temporary server happened without issues and we rushed to change the DNS settings for all production servers with the new VM IP address, after removing the IP address for the old PDC from the list.

After the confirmations, we built a fresh VM on VMWare ESXi environment and promoted it as PDC & we ahead with decommissioning the VM built on VirtualBox and forgot that “one thing”. Changing DNS server details for our LINUX servers.

Initially we didn’t give much attention to the SSH connection slowness as these LINUX server(s) running Oracle Applications were known to be slow in responding. However, things didn’t look quite promising as we noticed delays like 40s+ to establish connection to the host while trying to upload files using FileZilla client. It took us almost 8 days to realize that the connection issues were not from the client end, rather from the servers.

Checking the network configurations revealed these servers were still configured with the IP address of the temporary DC at the first entry, that we had for a while. Resetting the DNS entries to existing DNS servers IP addresses resolved the problems instantly.

Side note: No, you cannot overcome this issue by using IP addresses to establish the SSH connection. Regardless, the Linux HOST will try to resolve the client’s IP using the given DNS entries. So the only solution was to correct the DNS entries!

If you ever run into a slow SSH, well, hope know where to look at first after reading this post.

Linux | File Cleaner | bash script

Recently we setup a Linux server for keeping backups & decided not to use certain switches while the backups were synched from Windows machines. This created an additional situation like maintaining the storage space based on different business requirements and using our own solutions. So the following script was developed. Please note, this script has been tested on CentOS/RHEL/OEL 7 environment & executed with root privileges.


# Cleanup tool for Linux Samba Server
# Rajesh Thampi
# Date: Sep 2021
# Instructions
# Copy the script to a file with .sh extension
# Make it executable (eg: chmod +x
# Execute! (eg:./ 1>filecleaner.log 2>filecleaner.err
# And be careful :)

function purgeit(){
# local DIRNAME="$1"
# local FILETYPE="$2"

cd "$1"
echo "Entered Directory: ${PWD}"
#Check whether $3 number of files matching the patterns provided by $2 are present those were created within $4 days, then delete all files older than $4 days
if [ $(find -maxdepth 1 -name "$2" -type f -mtime -"$4" | wc -l) -ge $3 ]; then
local OBSFILECNT=$(find -maxdepth 1 -name "$2" -type f -mtime +"$4" | wc -l)
echo "There are ${OBSFILECNT} files & will be purged"
local obsfiles=$(find -maxdepth 1 -name "$2" -type f -mtime +"$4")

#The below loop is ONLY for logging purpose
#We'll delete all files matching the pattern in a single line command using "find"

        if [ $OBSFILECNT -gt 0 ]; then
        echo "Below Files will be deleted"
        for eachfile in "$obsfiles"
                echo "$eachfile"
                #find and delete will eliminate the need to treat files with space and other escape characters in the filenames.
                find -maxdepth 1 -name "$2" -type f -mtime +"$4" -exec rm -rf {} \;

#Call the function passing four variables: path, type of the files to purge, number of files to keep & age of the files
#those need to be deleted

#syntax: purgeit "/backup/server_sql" ("*.txt" OR "my*.php" OR "*" OR "*.*") 4 5
#example: purgeit "/backup/server_sql" "*.zip" 4 5
#You can call this function N number of times passing different paths and other values

Now let us see the logic in details.

Consider you have a path “/backup/server_sql” where your Microsoft SQL Server is uploading a full backup daily. As we are synching the backup files using ROBOCOPY from the Windows server without mirroring, the daily full backup files will start mounting in the Linux files server. Then we came up with a business plan to:

  • Keep minimum 4 number of most recent full backups for the SQL server in the Linux path those were created within last N number of days. If there are no files for last N days found, existing files will not deleted (gives an opportunity to investigate why there are no files uploaded to Linux file server)
  • Delete files those are 5 days or older from the Linux path after insuring minimum N number of files are within the repository.
  • Combined with a function send alert emails, this small snippet could function as both a storage maintenance and monitoring tool.

Interested about including email alerts? Let us know and will share the additional code with you exclusively.

rsync | Excluding a subdirectory/folder

We’ve Oracle RMAN backups copied to a remote server everyday & those chunks are once again copied to a removable media to “avoid”, disasters.

After a revamp of backup path, I needed to adjust the rsync command within a shell script to exclude a folder from the source. Misunderstanding the instructions, the new modifications made the shell script to copy the backup chunks twice on the removable media!

Let us see what I did initially that caused the duplication

[root@orcl DAILYBKP]# cd /u03
[root@orcl u03]# mkdir -p folder1/erp/RMAN/DAILYBKP
[root@orcl u03]# mkdir -p folder1/sf1
[root@orcl u03]# mkdir -p folder1/sf2
[root@orcl u03]# mkdir -p folder1/sf3
[root@orcl u03]# mkdir -p folder2
[root@orcl u03]# touch folder1/erp/RMAN/DAILYBKP/r1.txt
[root@orcl u03]# touch folder1/erp/RMAN/DAILYBKP/r2.txt
[root@orcl u03]# touch folder1/sf2/r1.txt
[root@orcl u03]# touch folder1/sf3/r1.txt
[root@orcl u03]# rsync -avz --exclude '/u03/folder1/erp' /u03/folder1 /u03/folder2
sending incremental file list

The above example demonstrates the mistake that I made while “excluding” a folder from the source. The correct method to exclude a subdirectory or folder was as below

[root@orcl u03]# rsync -avz --exclude 'erp/' /u03/folder1 /u03/folder2
sending incremental file list

sent 263 bytes  received 74 bytes  674.00 bytes/sec
total size is 0  speedup is 0.00
[root@orcl u03]# cd folder2
[root@orcl folder2]# ls -ltrh
total 4.0K
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4.0K Aug 12 09:39 folder1
[root@orcl folder2]# cd folder1
[root@orcl folder1]# ls -ltrh
total 12K
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K Aug 12 09:39 sf1
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K Aug 12 09:40 sf2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K Aug 12 09:41 sf3
[root@orcl folder1]#

All I needed was to just mention the name of the subfolder that I needed to exclude, not the whole path. I’ve limited exposure to Linux and much of the OS activities are initiated on demand. This causes some interesting situations like the one above & definitely helps to learn something new!

Linux multipath partitions unavailable after cold restart

Yesterday I shutdown one of our legacy system Linux servers after a long interval. May be almost after 1.5 years. Once restarted, I started getting alert emails from cronjobs which were using those mount points. After a quick checking I found that few the UUIDs I have used with fstab were missing when I issued “blkid” command…

Please note, I am not at all a Linux/Storage expert. I consider “finding” this solution as a blind shot as my immediate technical support guys were too busy to answer the calls. You are asked not to copy these to a production instance! I took the risk because the data, the server itself is NOT significant for us and we had the freedom to rebuild it as and when we needed it.

Linux Server IBM x3560 running OEL 6 & the storage device is DS3200 that uses HBA interface to the physical server.

Doing a fdisk -l listed the following for me:

Disk /dev/mapper/mpathb: 644.2 GB, 644245094400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 78325 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 

             Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

Disk /dev/mapper/mpathc: 214.7 GB, 214748364800 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 26108 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 
			 Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

and I remembered that earlier I had listings like the below

Disk /dev/mapper/mpathb: 644.2 GB, 644245094400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 78325 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 

             Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/mapper/mpathbp1               1       78325   629145531   83  Linux

Disk /dev/mapper/mpathc: 214.7 GB, 214748364800 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 26108 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 

             Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/mapper/mpathcp1               1       26108   209712478+  83  Linux

In addition to, I have noticed that there were two devices /dev/sdd, /dev/sde with the same size of the multipath sizes, however without any paritions.

After rebooting twice, I decided to create new partitions under /dev/sdd & /dev/sde which succeeded. However, when I tried to format these newly created partitions, I started getting “/dev/sdd1 is apparently in use by the system; will not make a filesystem here” and “/dev/sde1 is apparently in use by the system; will not make a filesystem here”, that forced me to restart the server once again.

To my utter surprises, once the machine booted up, all my mount points were back online once again without doing anything else.

[root@xyz multipath]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sdk2              59G   11G   46G  20% /
tmpfs                  10G  228K   10G   1% /dev/shm
/dev/sdk1             2.0G  330M  1.5G  18% /boot
/dev/sdk5             738G  632G   69G  91% /u01
/dev/mapper/mpathbp1  591G  332G  229G  60% /u02
/dev/mapper/mpathcp1  197G  134G   54G  72% /u03
/dev/sdg1             591G   70M  561G   1% /u04
/dev/sdj1             269G   59M  256G   1% /u05
/dev/sda1             917G  765G  107G  88% /usbdrive
/dev/sdb1             1.8T  642G  1.1T  37% /RDX
Disk /dev/sdd: 644.2 GB, 644245094400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 78325 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00035652

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdd1               1       78325   629145531   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sde: 214.7 GB, 214748364800 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 26108 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0002b47b

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sde1               1       26108   209712478+  83  Linux

Disk /dev/mapper/mpathb: 644.2 GB, 644245094400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 78325 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00035652

             Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/mapper/mpathbp1               1       78325   629145531   83  Linux

Disk /dev/mapper/mpathc: 214.7 GB, 214748364800 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 26108 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0002b47b

             Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/mapper/mpathcp1               1       26108   209712478+  83  Linux

Prior deciding to create the partitions once again, I cross verified that multipath daemon was loaded and I can see the information. For a primarily a Windows OS person, the whole thing looked like a messed up “File Allocation Table”

[root@erp-prodbak ~]# multipath -ll
mpathc () dm-1 IBM,1726-2xx  FAStT
size=200G features='1 queue_if_no_path' hwhandler='1 rdac' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=6 status=active
| `- 2:0:0:2  sde 8:64  active ready running
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=enabled
  `- 3:0:0:2  sdi 8:128 active ghost running
mpathb () dm-0 IBM,1726-2xx  FAStT
size=600G features='1 queue_if_no_path' hwhandler='1 rdac' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=6 status=active
| `- 2:0:0:1  sdd 8:48  active ready running
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=enabled
  `- 3:0:0:1  sdh 8:112 active ghost running

I have confirmed that the ids in use were same as /etc/multipath/wwids and bindings files.

Well, may be I was truly lucky to “get it done” this time without understanding what actually went wrong. You may not apply this solution to production environment in case if you are dealing with important data!



Windows Subsystem for Linux | Backup & restore

Hello guys

WSL 2 is almost here! and if you are here, reading this post. Please consider reading about WSL 2

During one of the recent chit-chats, few of my contacts were asking me about the “real” business sense behind Linux on Windows. It is simple. Microsoft is:

Going to integrate LINUX so deep within Windows that, in the very near future, one don’t have to run a separate LINUX Server. Simple like that.

After experimenting with KALI Linux WSL, I managed to install Xfce & XRDP on Ubuntu 18.04 WSL & the only few things I couldn’t do with the WSL was starting services automatically when the subsystem starts. There are hacks, well, I don’t think they really worth a try soon as Microsoft will BE bringing it on to WSL pretty soon.

Now, let us get back to the topic. I’ve installed Ubuntu 18.04 WSL nothing less than half dozen times. Every time something goes wrong & I am forced to uninstall and re-install the WSL to continue with additional experiments. My last attempt was to install Kubuntu desktop, that screwed my Xfce & after 2 days of continuous efforts to “fix” few “unknown” things, I had to uninstall one Ubuntu WSL that had a fully functional WordPress instance :(

So, I decided to learn how to backup a functional WSL, so that if something goes wrong, I can restore & continue

I’ve ready at few places that Windows 10 version 1903 comes with WSL backup functionality out of the box. Until you decide to upgrade your box to 1903, you may use the below for backing up your dear WSL instance.

I came across a pretty decent thread here & a user Jaime’s answer is the apt ONE, missing only few details like /tmp folder.

Make a tar ball as mentioned by Jaime

# cd /
# sudo tar vzcpf /mnt/c/tmp/ubuntu_`date +%Y%m%d_%H`.tar.gz --exclude=/proc --exclude=/dev --exclude=/mnt --exclude=/media --exclude=/lost+found  --exclude=/tmp --exclude=/sys  --exclude=/run / > /mnt/c/tmp/ubuntu_`date +%Y%m%d_%H`.log 2> /mnt/c/tmp/ubuntu_`date +%Y%m%d_%H`.error

Where /mnt/c is C:\> drive of your Windows Machine. You may change /mnt/c/ to /mnt/d/ or /mnt/e/, based on how your partitions are laid. Closely watch the excluded directories. You MUST exclude them.

My tar ball was around 1.5GB in size & I moved the tar ball to another machine which didn’t have WSL activated.

First you have to enable Window Subsystem for linux from Turn Windows Features on or off (If you are not restoring the backup to same Windows Machine). This will ask you to restart your Windows Machine.

Copy the tar ball to a folder, say, D:\wsl

Download launcher.exe from

Copy launcher.exe to D:\wsl

If you are going to restore a Ubuntu 18.04 WSL rename launcher.exe to Ubuntu1804.exe & rename your tar ball to rootfs.tar.gz

Open an elevated command prompt & switch to D:\wsl

and just execute, for example “Ubuntu1804.exe”

It will take a while for the installation to complete. As the superuser thread states, it installs and opens the WSL for you. From next time, all you need to do is to start Ubuntu1804.exe & your WSL instance is up and running!

However, I had an issue with the restored instance. It was related to missing /tmp folder. I found a solution for it with nixcraft article.

Prior trying to start any sevices, those you were using with your backed up instance, make sure you create the /tmp folder like below

$sudo chown root:root /tmp
$sudo chmod 1777 /tmp

Now, try to start your services, start xrdp & enjoy!



Windows Subsystem for Linux | WSL | Ubuntu 18.04 with Xfce & Xrdp

Hello guys

As many of us know, starting from Windows 10 1803, Microsoft has made Windows subsystem for Linux running in the background even after the console windows are closed.

Definitely this is a gain for those developers who want to have a Linux environment available always, regardless whether the console windows open or not. My requirements towards the same is pretty limited, as I have live Linux systems for almost all my experiments. However, was never less motivated to explore the WSL environments.

Last time I posted a thread about installing and configuring Ubuntu 18.04 WSL and setting up apache, MySQL.

This time we will see how you could enhance your Ubuntu 18.04 WSL with a proper GUI (Desktop environment). I am sure, majority of the Windows users will appreciate a GUI to interact with Linux against the Linux geeks who prefer command line interactions. In addition, few editors like geany or gedit ONLY could be used in a GUI environment.

We will be using Xfce (light weight desktop manager) & XRDP to achieve the GUI requirements on Ubuntu 18.04 WSL

Fire up your Ubuntu 18.04, and update the instance to the latest

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

This could take a while to complete depending upon your internet connection speed

Once the update & upgrade finished, we will install both Xfce & Xrdp in a single session

sudo apt install xfce4 xrdp

The installation should be pretty smooth and within few minutes everything should complete. Not a single attempt from my end failed to install both Xfce or Xrdp

Once the installation is over, we MUST make sure that the XRDP doesn’t use port 3389 which is used by Microsoft RDP (in case if your Windows 10 is already configured for RDP). Hence we will edit the XRDP configuration file with a different port, in our case 3390

sudo vi /etc/xrdp/xrdp.ini

Change the port from 3389 to 3390 & save the file.

Now we will try start the XRDP service

rajesh@rt04:~$ sudo service xrdp start
* Starting Remote Desktop Protocol server [20190509-12:13:49] [DEBUG] Testing if xrdp can listen on port 3390.
[20190509-12:13:49] [DEBUG] Closed socket 6 (AF_INET6 :: port 3390)
[ OK ]

That’s it

Open Remote Desktop Connection from your Windows Machine & log on!

Supply your WSL username and password. You can use ONE of the existing WSL usernames, in case if your WSL have more than one user.

One of the main issues I found using Xfce4 was few goodies like print screen should be installed by the user prior screenshot capturing could be made (I took screenshots from the remote session & copied them to Windows for this post). This will include adding new keyboard shortcut keys.

We’ll quickly see how to resolve the above said

First install missing “xfce4-screenshooter”

sudo apt install xfce4-screenshooter -y

Once the package installation finished, we will define a new keyboard shortcut that binds “Print Screen” physical button on the keyboard to Xfce4 screenshot shooter package.

Launch Applications -> Settings -> Keyboard

and using the “Add” button, Create a new shortcut. Xfce4 supports different switches to be used with screenshooter package. I’m using the “-f”, for full screen captures.

Be careful when you define the keyboard shortcuts. There is a space between the command and switches, for example

xfce4-screenshooter -f

There is a space between xfce4-screenshooter & the switch “-f”. Once after entering the command and pressing OK will ask you to tap the physical keyboard button that you want to bind with the command. Tap “PrtScr” or other button of your choice & that’s all. Your screen capture should work now.

So why one would even need a GUI over WSL. Well, my answer is short. I always dealt with systems those came with GUI. Many business applications could only be installed over a GUI equipped system. Plus, I am not a geek & after hundreds of attempts I cannot deal with a console based editor like VIM. I feel comfortable with geany/gedit than feeling geeky at mind.

Cheers guys, now your WSL have a GUI. Start think about what YOU can’t do with WSL!

Happy developing!



Linux Subsystem for Windows | WordPress

Hi guys

Almost a year back I posted about Linux Subsystem for Windows & interesting that I am revisiting the subject in the same period once again. Within an year time loads have changed with the Linux subsystem. Starting from Windows 10 version 1803, once started the Linux Subsystem is available in the background until a reboot! Sounds great?

This time we will see such an enhancement could be utilized on Windows for some extended “developments”, and I will walk you through setting up “WordPress” using WSL. Please note, I am opting “WordPress” as target ONLY for few reasons like:

  • “WordPress” is developed using PHP
  • “WordPress” mostly uses MySQL for database
  • “WordPress” is mostly hosted on LINUX environments

Windows SubSystem for Linux Installation

You must enable “Windows SubSystem for Linux ” through “Turn Windows Features on or off”, after which you will have to reboot your Windows box

Open “Windows Store” and search for Linux, that should bring up many results as seen with the image below

We’ll be using Ubuntu 18.04 LTS this time as I had pretty difficult issues with Pengwin & SUSE. If you are familiar with Linux, Ubuntu is a debian based Linux distribution & widely used for desktop systems. For our limited tests Ubuntu is a right choice.

Total download of Ubuntu 18.04 is around 270MBs & should be installed without giving any troubles.

Once “Ubuntu App” is installed you will be notified and you can immediately “launch” the app.

Ubuntu takes few minutes to finalize the installation & will prompt you to enter a username & password. Make sure you remember the username and password, forgetting may force you to reinstall Ubuntu.

Immediately after setting up a Linux username and password, we will make sure that the Subsystem is upgraded with all new packages.

(While apt & apt-get do almost the same thing, why “apt” is preferred? please read about it here)

Issue the command

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt upade

Once the update process finishes with the list of packages those could be upgrade, go ahead with upgrading the instance

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt upgrade

Depending upon the speed of your internet connection this could take a while.

Installation of PHP, Apache, MySQL & phpMyadmin on WSL

Install PHP

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt install php libapache2-mod-php

It shouldn’t take more than couple of minutes before PHP is installed.

Install Apache2 (Web Server)

Issue the following command at prompt($)

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt install apache2 or sudo apt-get install apache2

Apache installation should not take more than few minutes & we will see how to configure it bit later.

MySQL installation

I faced multiple issues installing MySQL on my Ubuntu based WSL. Few were merely because I was ignoring few pre-requisites like checking for already open ports on my Windows & other were due to lack of adequate amount of experiences with installing software on Linux

After a couple of failed attempts, I landed upon this page, which neatly explains how to use MySQL PPA in the place of Ubuntu’s default repositories for MySQL

I will make some fresh screenshots, that is for recent versions of MySQL installation using the MySQL PPA, because there are few more MySQL versions are supported currently using the same PPA

Configure MySQL PPA

Issue the following commands:

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]

followed by

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo dpkg -i mysql-apt-config_0.8.10-1_all.deb

This will provide you a graphical interface to select correct MySQL version for your requirements

Now, you must run update command once again

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt update

Now we have a conflict to resolve. As on date, the MySQL 5.7 repository signature is invalid, for the same reason the repository will be disabled. (I don’t know what kind of issues this could produce, so not taking any risks). Next step we will get a valid signature for the disabled repository and re-enable it

Issue the command (read more here

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt-key adv –keyserver –recv-keys 8C718D3B5072E1F5

Make sure the key that you want to resign is fed in correct. You MUST insure that the command completes successfully.

As we have enabled the repository by getting the new key, we can proceed to next step.

We will force the udpate process once again

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt update

You should get a notice that 1 package could be upgraded. So we will go ahead with upgrade.

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt upgrade

This will auto start the configuration window, all you need is to select ok and proceed

Make sure there are no new packages after the setup by issuing

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt update

Now we can start installing the MySQL 5.7 Server.
Please note, if you already have an instance of MySQL running on your Windows, the port 3306 will be in use (unless custom ports are used) & you WILL never able to complete the MySQL installation on WSL. Many undocumented errors will stop the MySQL installation, apparently without giving you the least ideas of what went wrong. So, make sure that the MySQL server is stopped and the port is not listening to port 3306. I don’t know another way to address this situation.

Issue the command

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt install mysql-server

You will be prompted for MySQL root account. I suggest using the same password across this particular setup so that you will not mess them up later stages.

Confirm the MySQL root password

That completes the MySQL 5.7 Server installation.

Now, let us try to start the MySQL 5.7 Server service.

MySQL 5.7 service is started now. So we can proceed to installing phpmyadmin, MySQL manipulation software.

Install phpmyadmin

Issue the following command

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin php-mbstring php-gettext

As we are using Apache2 as web server, make the selection by tapping the spacebar and Ok

You will be asked whether the database for phpmyadmin should be configured, You should select Yes, unless you want to do it later.

You will be asked to provide the a password now, that is for the phpmyadmin, use the same MySQL root password here (you can use a new password, just to avoid confusion, I use the same password everywhere)

You have to confirm the password.

Now you will be asked to enter the MySQL administrator(root) password, supply it

Confirm & wait for the phpmyadkin to complete the installation

Installation will notify you about Apache not being running, you can ignore the notice.

Now we will start the Apache Server. Couple of things you should take care with Apache & I will try to list few of them below:

As the WSL runs as another software on Windows, it is bind to experience conflicts. For example, if you already have IIS server listening to port 80, without changing the port information for Apache, will not able to start the server until the ports information is corrected within the Apache configuration file.

If you already have MS SQL server installed with reporting, the reporting engine listens to port 80, so even if you would stop or disable the IIS/WWP services, there is a possibility that port conflicts will arise. This will also prompt you to alter the default port mentioned in the Apache configuration file

So let us see how we are going to address such conflicts:

Edit the Apache ports configuration file

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo vi /etc/apache2

I opted for port 8088 (You can choose a port that is NOT used by Windows. Issue netstat -aon to get a list of ports open/listening on Windows from CMD

100% sure that you are going get presented with an annoying notice “
Protocol not available: AH00076: Failed to enable APR_TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT” which is easily addressable.

We will edit the apache configuration file to address this issue

issue the command

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo vi /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

& add “AcceptFilter http none” by the end of the file.

Save the configuration file & restart the Apache service.

As we have completed all the installations and managed to start the services successfully after fixing the configuration files, it is time to reboot.

WSL unfortunately doesn’t let you use “init 0”, or “init 6” to shutdown or restart the instance, instead you must use the Windows Services MMC for the same.

This will close all open Ubuntu “app” windows. You can restart the Ubuntu from the app list.

Once Ubuntu restarted, let us start the services

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo service apache2 start
$sudo service mysql start

Once the services are started, we will try phpmyadmin. As I mentioned already, I have set the port 8088 for Apache, hence I can access the phpmyadmin from the link http://localhost:8088/phpmyadmin

You can safely ignore the warnings, as the current version of phpmyadmin we installed from Ubuntu repos have certain conflicts with PHP 7.2

Install “WordPress”

“WordPress” is one of the leading CMS (Content Management Systems) with unlimited possibilities. Recently we switched our decade long joomla based corporate website to “WordPress” & after few days of interactions with the technology, I feel I would never look anywhere else.

Get “WordPress”

Issue the command

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]

This will download the latest “WordPress” to your home folder

Now we have to extract the downloaded file to right htdoc root. We are talking about the default configurations available with apache configuration files. Hence the wordpress should be extracted to ‘/var/www/hmtl/’ folder, which is a protected path. We’ll change the folder permissions temporarily to facilitate the extracting

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo chown 777 -R /var/www

now switch to ‘/var/www/html/’

Issue the command

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$tar -xvzf /home/rajesh//latest.tar.gz

NB: Replace the pathname, please

Now we will create a new database for the “WordPress” using phpmyadmin

Create a new MySQL user

Give the newly created user database privileges, in my case, I created a new datbase called “intranet”.

Set all privileges. On a production environment, YOU are expected to set them wisely.

As all set with the database, we will install “WordPress” now

Access the link (please changed according to your setups)

http://localhost:8088/wordpress/wp-admin/install.php, that will take you to “WordPress” installation page immediately.

Supply all requested details

Now we have a problem, “WordPress” installation cannot write to “wp-config.php” file. This is due to linux file/folder permissions. Hence we will again change the permissions over ‘/var/www/’ folder

[code language=”bash” gutter=”false”]
$sudo chmod 777 -R /var/www

Now, go back to the previous page, furnish the details and “WordPress” should happily move ahead. Run the installation

That completes what we tried to achieve. “WordPress” running successfully from a WSL environment.

Now, it is time to ask the questions like “Why so much pain, when we can achieve the entire “WordPress” thing on Windows?”

Well, primarly “WordPress” performs better on Linux enviorment (personal observation), second & most important for me. I just love learning something new everyday. You are welcome!

Microsoft has added WSL with it’s Server 2016 (Version 1803) & the vision is pretty clear. Microsoft “wants” to provide a LINUX environment within Windows so that in the future, a separate LINUX Server requirement will NOT truly hurt the customers. Currently the WSL is NOT equipped with desktops/GUI & Pengwin like initiatives are sure making traction. If my guess will NOT go wrong, soon Windows Servers will be running “Linux” side by side & those Linux Servers are going to be as good as physical/Virtualized. We’ll wait eagerly, together.